Significantly, the letters were ratified by the lord of Monaco, underlining their contractual nature.Soon after, an agreement signed in Burgos in 1524 placed Monaco under the protection of Spain, and made it into an imperial fief, for which the lord of Monaco was to give homage.
Monaco breaks away finally from Genoa in 1419, and the Grimaldi return as lords of Monaco.By the late 15th century, Monaco gravitates toward France, and letters patent of the king of France grant to Monaco protection et sauvegarde especial all the while maintaining the lord of Monaco's "preeminences, privileges, rights and freedoms" (, 10 July 1498, ). 10, 1512 recognized Monaco's independence from France, in the sense that the Grimaldi were considered to hold Monaco "from God and the sword only", and offered his protection: "voulons et entendons que le dit seigneur Grimault ne soit aucunement diminué, ne soit empêché en ses droits, jurisdictions, supériorités, prérogatives et préhéminences, et le prenons sous Notre protection, sureté et sauvegarde spéciales" (cited in Ed.Engelhardt: Les protectorats anciens et modernes; Paris).As described below, several successive families have in turn adopted the name and arms of Grimaldi.The flag of Monaco is based on the colors of these arms.
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Ultimately, one of the brothers, Jean (1382-1454) was left in sole possession of Monaco after the brothers divided the family estates in 1427.